1.    (iii) minerals, organic matter, air and water.

2.    (ii) clayey soil.

3.    (i) (b)

(ii) (c)

(iii) (a)

(iv) (e)

(v) (d)

4.    Soil is formed by the breaking down of rocks by the action of wind, water and climate. This process is called weathering.

5.    Clayey soil retains water to a great extent. Thus the crops which require more water grow well in clayey soil.

6.    Sandy soil

(i) High percolation rate.

(ii) Low water retention capacity.

Clayey soil

(i) Low percolation rate.

(ii) High water retention capacity.


8.   Rate of percolation = amount of water/ percolation time.

= 200mL/40

= 5mL/min.

9.   Cutting of tress and deforestation should be prevented and effort should be made to increase the green areas to prevent soil erosion and soil pollution.