1.     Fill in the blanks:

(a) Production of new individual from the vegetative parts of parent is called vegetative propagation.

(b) A flower may have either male or female reproductive parts. Such flower is called unisexual flowers.

(c) The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to stigma of the same or of another flower of the same kind is known as pollination.

(d) The fusion of male and female gametes is termed as fertilisation.

(e) Seed dispersal takes place by means of insect and water.

2.     Various methods of asexual reproduction are:

(a) Vegetative propagation- In this method new plants are developed from root, stem or leaf of plant.

(b) Budding – Here, small bulb-like projection coming out from, yeast cell is called bud, gradually grows and gets detached from parent body to form new Ex- hydra, yeast.

(c) Fragmentation- In favorable condition, plant body breaks into two or more fragments which grow into independent plant.

(d) Spore formation – The fungi on bread pieces grow from spores which are present in air. Spores germinate when come in contact of moisture.

3.    The mode of reproduction in which male and female gamete fuse together to form a zygote. Zygote divides further to form new organism. Male and female gamete may be of same kind or different kind. Sexual reproduction is common in multicellular organism and unicellular organism in unfavorable condition.

4.     Asexual reproduction

(i) Single parent is involved.

(ii) No gamete formation takes

(iii) New organism is similar to parents.

Sexual reproduction

(i) Two parents are involved.

(ii) Gametes are formed.

(iii) New organism are different from the parents.


6.    If the pollen lands on the stigma of the same flower it is called self-pollination. When the pollen of a flower lands on the stigma of another flower of the same plantor that of different plant of same speices. It is called cross-pollination.

7.    The male and female gametes fuse together to form zygote. The process of fusion of male and female gamete is called fertilization. The zygote undergo to mitotic division to form embryo.

8.    Dispersal of seed takes place by various means such as wind, water, insects, animals and birds. The seeds dispersed by wind are light and smaller in size. So, that it may be carried by wind easily. The water dispersed seeds are generally floating in nature. Spiny seeds with hooks are generally carried by animal’s body. The birds disperse the seed to faraway places by eating fruit, they excrete with digesting the seeds.

9.    (a) (iii)

(b) (v)

(c) (ii)

(d) (i)

(e) (iv)

10.  (a) (iv) flower.

(b) (i) fertilisation.

(c) (iv) fruit.

(d) (iii) bread mould.

(e) (ii) leaves.