# Linear Programming

**Exercise 1**

Solve the following Linear Programming Problems graphically:

**1.** Maximize Z = 3x + 4y subject to the constraints: x + y ≤ 4, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0.

**2.** Minimize Z = -3x + 4y subject to x + 2y ≤ 8, 3x + 2y ≤ 12, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0.

**3. ** Maximize Z = 5x + 3y subject to 3x + 5y ≤ 15, 5x + 2y ≤ 10, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0.

**4. ** Minimize P = 3x + 5y such that x + 3y ≥ 3, x + y ≥ x, y ≥ 0.

**5. ** Maximize Z = 3x + 2y subject to x + 2y ≤ 10, 3x + y ≤ 15, x, y ≥ 0.

**6. **Minimize Z = x + 2y subject to 2x + y ≥ 3, x + 2y ≥ 6, x, y ≥ 0. Show that the minimum of Z occurs at more than two points.

**7.** Minimize and Maximize Z = 5x + 10y subject to x + 2y ≤ 120, x + y ≥ 60, x – 2y ≥ 0, x, y ≥ 0.

**8.** Minimize and Maximize Z = x + 2y subject to x + 2y ≥ 100, 2x – y ≤ 0, 2x + y ≤ 200, x, y ≥ 0.

**9. **Maximize Z = -x + 2y subject to the constraints: x ≥ 3, x + y ≥ 5, x + 2y ≥ 6, y ≥ 0.

**10.** Maximize Z = x + y subject to x – y ≤ -1, -x + y ≤ 0, x, y ≥ 0.

**Exercise 2**

**11.** Reshma wishes to mix two types of food P and Q in such a way that the vitamin contents of the mixture contain at least 8 units of vitamin A and 11 units of vitamin B. Food P costs Rs. 60/kg and Food Q costs Rs. 80/kg. Food P contains 3 units/kg of vitamin A and 5 units/kg of vitamin B while Food Q contains 4 units/kg of vitamin A and 2 units/kg of vitamin B. Determine the minimum cost of the mixture.

**12.** One kind of cake requires 200g of flour and 25 g of fat and another kind of cake requires 100 g of flour and 50 g of fat. Find the maximum number of cake which can be made from 5 kg of flour and 1 kg of fat assuming that there is no shortage of the other ingredients used in making the cakes.

**13. **A factory makes tennis rackets and cricket bats. A tennis racket takes 1.5 hours of machine time and 3 hours of craftman’s time in its making while a cricket bat takes 3 hours of machine time and 1 hour of craftman’s time. In a day, the factory has the availability of not more than 42 hours of machine time and 24 hours of craftman’s time.

(i) What number of rackets and bats must be made if the factory is to work at full capacity?

(ii) If the profit on a racket and on a bat is Rs. 20 and Rs. 10 respectively, find maximum profit of the factory when it works at full capacity.

**14.** A manufacturer produces nuts and bolts. It takes 1 hour of work on machine A and 3 hours on machine B to produce a package of nuts. It takes 3 hours on machine A and 1 hour on machine B to produce a package of bolts. He earns a profit of Rs. 17.50 per package on nuts and Rs. 7.00 per package on bolts. How many packages of each should be produced each day so as to maximize his profit, if he operates his machines for at the most 12 hours a day?

**15.** A factory manufacturers two types of screws, A and B. Each type of screw requires the use of two machines, an automatic and a hand operated. It takes 4 minutes on the automatic and 6 minutes on hand operated machines to manufacture a package of screw A, while it takes 6 minutes on automatic and 3 minutes on hand operated machines to manufacture a package of screws B. Each machine is available for at the most 4 hours on any day. The manufacturer can sell a package of screws A at a profit of Rs. 7 and screws B at a profit of Rs. 10. Assuming that he can sell all the screws he manufactures, how many packages of each type should the factory owner produce a day in order to maximize his profit? Determine the maximum profit.

**16.** A cottage industry manufactures pedestal lamps and wooden shades, each requiring the use of a grinding/cutting machine and a sprayer. It takes 2 hours on grinding/cutting machine and 3 hours on the sprayer to manufacture a pedestal lamp. It takes 1 hour on the grinding/cutting machine and 2 hours on the sprayer to manufacture a shade. On any day, the sprayer is available for at the most 20 hours and the grinding/cutting machine for at the most 12 hours. The profit from the sale of a lamp is Rs.5 and that from a shade is Rs.3. Assuming that the manufacturer can sell all the lamps and shades that he produces, how should he schedule his daily production in order to maximize his profit?

**17.** A company manufactures two types of novelty souvenirs made of plywood. Souvenirs of type A requires 5 minutes each for cutting and 10 minutes each for assembling. Souvenirs of type B require 8 minutes each for cutting and 8 minutes each for assembling. There are 3 hours 20 minutes available for cutting and 4 hours for assembling. The profit is Rs.5 each for type A and Rs.6 each for type B souvenirs. How many souvenirs of each type should the company manufacture in order to maximize the profit?

**18.** A merchant plans to sell two types of personal computers – a desktop model and a portable model that will cost Rs. 25000 and Rs. 40000 respectively. He estimates that the total monthly demand of computers will not exceed 250 units. Determine the number of units of each type of computers which the merchant should stock to get maximum profit if he does not want to invest more than Rs, 70 lakhs and if his profit on the desktop model is Rs. 4500 and on portable model is Rs. 5000.

**19.** A diet is to contain at least 80 units of vitamin A and 100 units of minerals. Two foods F_{1} and F_{2} are available. Food F_{1} costs Rs. 4 per unit food and F_{2} costs Rs. 6 per unit. One unit of food F_{1} contains 3 units of vitamin A and 4 units of minerals. One unit of food F_{2} contains 6 units of vitamin A and 3 units of minerals. Formulate this as a linear programming problem. Find the minimum cost for diet that consists of mixture of these two foods and also meets the minimal nutritional requirements.

**20.** There are two types of fertilizers F_{1} and F_{2}. F_{1} consists of 10% nitrogen and 6% phosphoric acid and F_{2} consists of 5% nitrogen and 10% phosphoric acid. After testing the soil conditions, a farmer finds that she needs at least 14 kg of nitrogen and 14 kg of phosphoric acid for her crop. If F_{1} costs Rs. 6/kg and F_{2} costs Rs. 5/kg, determine how much of each type of fertilizer should be used so that nutrient requirements are met at a minimum cost. What is the minimum cost?

**21.** The corner points of the feasible region determined by the following system of linear inequalities:

2x + y ≤ 10, x + 3y ≤ 15, x, y ≥ 0 are (0, 0), (5, 0), (3, 4) and (0, 5). Let Z = px + qy, where p, q > 0. Condition on p and q so that maximum of Z occurs at both (3, 4) and (0, 5) is:

(A) p = q

(B) p = 2q

(C) p = 3q

(D) q = 3p

**22.** A dietician has to develop a special diet using two foods P and Q. Each packet (containing 30 g) of food P contains 12 units of calcium, 4 units of iron, 6 units of cholesterol and 6 units of vitamin A, while each packet of the same quantity of food Q contains 3 units of calcium, 20 units of iron, 4 units of cholesterol and 3 units of vitamin A. The diet requires at least 240 units of calcium, atleast 460 units of iron and atmost 300 units of cholesterol. How many packets of each food should be used to maximize the amount of vitamin A in the diet? What is the maximum amount of vitamin A in the diet?

**23.** A farmer mixes two brands P and Q of cattle feed. Brand P, costing Rs. 250 per bag, contains 3 units of nutritional element A, 2.5 units of element B and 2 units of element C. Brand Q costing Rs. 200 per bag contains 1.5 units of nutritional element A, 11.25 units of element B and 3 units of element C. The minimum requirements of nutrients A, B and C are 18 units, 45 units and 24 units respectively. Determine the number of bags of each brand which should be mixed in order to produce a mixture having a minimum cost per bag? What is the minimum cost of the mixture per bag?

**24.** A dietician wishes to mix together two kinds of food X and Y in such a way that the mixture contains at least 10 units of vitamin A, 12 units of vitamin B and 8 units of vitamin C. The vitamin contents of one kg food is given below:

One kg of food X costs Rs. 16 and one kg of food Y costs Rs. 20. Find the least cost of the mixture which will produce the required diet?

**25. **A manufacturer makes two types of toys A and B. Three machines are needed for this purpose and the time (in minutes) requires for each toy on the machines is given below:

Each machine is available for a maximum of 6 hours per day. If the profit on each type of type A is Rs. 7.50 and that on each toy of type B is Rs. 5, shows that 15 toys of type A and 30 of type B should be manufactures in a day to get maximum profit.

**26.** An aeroplane carries a maximum of 200 passengers. A profit of Rs. 1000 is made on each executive class ticket and a profit of Rs. 600 is made on each economy class ticket. The airline reserves at least 20 seats for executive class, However at least 4 times as many passengers prefer to travel by economy class than by the executive class. Determine how many tickets of each type must be sold in order to maximize the profit for the airline. What is the maximum profit?

**27.** Two godowns A and B have grain capacity of 100 quintals and 50 quintals respectively. They supply to 3 ration shops. D, E and F whose requirements are 60, 50 and 40 quintals respectively. The cost of transportation per quintal from the godowns to the shops are given in the following table:

How should the supplies be transported in order that the transportation cost is minimum? What is the minimum cost?

**28.** An oil company has two depots A and B with capacities of 7000 L and 4000 L respectively. The company is to supply oil to three petrol pumps. D, E and F whose requirements are 4500 L, 3000 L and 3500 L respectively. The distances (in km) between the depots and the petrol pumps is given in the following table:

Assuming that the transportation cost of 10 liters of oil is Re. 1 per km, how should the delivery be scheduled in order that the transportation cost is minimum? What is the minimum cost?

**29. **A fruit grower can use two types of fertilizer in his garden, brand P and brand Q. The amounts (in kg) of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash and chlorine in a bag of each brand are given in the table. Tests indicate that the garden needs at least 240 kg of phosphoric acid, at least 270 kg of potash and at most 310 kg of chlorine.

If the grower wants to minimize the amount of nitrogen added to the garden, how many bags of each brand should be used? What is the minimum amount of nitrogen added in the garden?

**30.** Refer to Question 8. If the grower wants to maximize the amount of nitrogen added to the garden, how many bags of each brand should be added? What is the maximum amount of nitrogen added?

**31.** A toy company manufactures two types of dolls, A and B. Market tests and available resources have indicated that the combined production level should not exceed 1200 dolls per week and the demand for dolls of type B is at most half of that for dolls of type A. Further, the production level of dolls of type A can exceed three times the production of dolls of other type by at most 600 units. If the company makes profit of Rs.12 and Rs. 16 per doll respectively on dolls A and B, how many of each should be produced weekly in order to maximize the profit?